近代哲学史上典型的二元论者是由二分法造成,典型代表是17世纪法国哲学家R笛卡尔,他主张心灵与身体之间的二元论(心物二元论),而康德则发现了现象界与本体之间的二元论,还有一些非主流的二元理论,如实体二元论(Substance Dualism)、概念二元论(Conceptual Dualism)等。
The basis of brand identity argument: dualism
Dualism holds that the world has two origins, which are parallel.
Dualism is a powerful term in the history of philosophy. From the ancient Aristotle era to modern Kant, Descartes and many other masters are advocates of dualism. Aristotle discovered the dualism between form and material, while Augustine discovered the dualism between the city of God and the city of man.
In the history of modern philosophy, the typical dualism is caused by dichotomy. The typical representative is the 17th century French philosopher r Descartes, who advocated the dualism between mind and body. Kant found the dualism between phenomenology and ontology, and some non mainstream dualism, such as substance dualism and conceptual dualism.
Dualism holds that spirit and matter are two absolutely different entities, the essence of spirit lies in thought, and the essence of matter lies in existence; matter cannot think, and spirit cannot exist without carrier (human / brain / words / speech / vision, etc.).
Spirit and matter are completely independent of each other and cannot be determined by one or derived from the other. In short, dualism is a philosophical theory which advocates that the world has two independent sources of spirit and material. Because dualism separates the relationship between material and spirit, it can not solve the problem of the essence of the world scientifically, and it can not carry out the principle of absolute independence of material and spirit to the end. Even Descartes, in the end, turned to idealist monism.